We believe that some of our natural products at BIOGENIQUE can help improve overall health. We support the medical community for the beneficial role of Vitamin D in the fight with coronavirus pandemic. We do not make assertion that essential oils can cure a Coronavirus infection.

 

Coronavirus Chat: 


Do you have any Antiviral essential oils?

“I think it’s the Ravintsara. I think it's one to 5 drops. You can use it with carrier oil, and massage into the lungs.  You can also inhale it by preparing boiling water and not putting a few drops. At the first sign of something, it will decrease the chances of having stronger symptoms.



Would that also work for the Coronavirus?

“For the coronavirus we don't have any standards yet, but it should boost our immune system. All essential oils are proven to have antibacterial and antiviral effects. So it kills like other chemicals, they're pretty strong. On the other hand, we cannot swallow certain oils. It’s very focused. To have a local disinfection, at the level of the throat, it is really inhalation. It should be fine and really reduce the possibilities that the virus will increase, multiply ...


We have throat sprays with herbal remedies that are good for disinfecting the throat. I also recommend having oregano oil with garlic. She is really good for my child who is 7 years old. I put a drop in a skin of water and give it to him. He doesn't find it good. Anytime there's something going viral. But you shouldn't go more than 5 days. It should be the first attack ...

They say the coronavirus stays in our gut. It's in the stool, not just in the throat. Much of the immune system is found in our gastrointestinal system. There are immune cells. By reducing them, you can do prevention. Your immune system will recognize the virus, but you will decrease the chances that it will multiply, that your immune system will react stronger. Not just for the coronavirus, but for all viral infections. "


We support the medical community for the beneficial role of Vitamin D in the fight with coronavirus pandemic

Orrù B, Szekeres-Bartho J, Bizzarri M, Spiga AM, Unfer V. Inhibitory effects of Vitamin D on inflammation and IL-6 release. A further support for COVID-19 management? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020 Aug;24(15):8187-8193. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202008_22507. PMID: 32767348.

Vitamin D and COVID-19: evidence and recommendations for supplementation. George Griffin, Martin Hewison, Julian Hopkin, Rose Kenny, Richard Quinton, Jonathan Rhodes, Sreedhar Subramanian and David Thickett. Published:01 December 2020https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201912

Linda L. Benskin A Basic Review of the Preliminary Evidence That COVID-19 Risk and Severity Is Increased in Vitamin D Deficiency.  Front. Public Health, 10 September 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00513

 

Essential Oil

Is it going to work for coronaviruses?

 At the present moment no essential oil is approved for the prevention or treatment of COVID!!!

However, it is important to support and maintain good state of health. 

We believe that some of our natural products can help improve general patient well-being. 

Example:

Wild Oregano C93 With Garlic, New roots,  NPN- 80043763 

HEALTH CANADA RECOMMENDED USE OR PURPOSE:

Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine to help relieve the symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections and catarrhal conditions. Used in Herbal Medicine to help reduce elevated blood lipid levels/ hyperlipidemia in adults. Used in Herbal Medicine to help maintain cardiovascular health in adults. Source of antioxidants.


For information purposes only! Some recently published studies for the potential benefit of the use of essential oils as “supportive therapy” to improve general patient well-being.


Antiviral activity of Ravintsara

Ravintsara (ct. 1,8-Cineol) (Cinnamomum camphora) Essential Oil

Ravintsara is an essential oil steam distilled from the leaves of the Cinnamomum camphora tree, commonly known as the camphor tree.

Eucalyptol is the primary chemical constituent of Ravintsara. 

Divine essence Ravintsara –  “Cough and cold”

NPN80073214


HEALTH CANADA RECOMMENDED USE OR PURPOSE:

UTILISÉE EN AROMATHÉRAPIE POUR AIDE À SOULAGER TEMPORAIREMENT LA TOUX ASSOCIÉE AU RHUME COMMUN.

Label information:

BOTANICAL NAME Cinnamomum camphora cineoliferum

 Use: Topical (Adults) Mix 1 to 5 drops in 1/2 teaspoon (2.5ml) of vegetable oil; apply evenly in thin layers on the chest every 8 hours up to 3 times a day. Inhalation Add 4 to 12 drops to a bowl of steaming hot water or a diffuser. Inhale slowly and deeply for 5-10 minutes up to 3 times a day.


 Some In vivo data for the potential antiviral properties of this essential oil:

PubMed:

Li Y, Lai Y, Wang Y, Liu N, Zhang F, Xu P. 1, 8-Cineol Protect Against Influenza-Virus-Induced Pneumonia in Mice.  Inflammation. 2016 Aug;39(4):1582-93. doi: 10.1007/s10753-016-0394-3. PMID: 27351430


Müller J, Greiner JF, Zeuner M, Brotzmann V, Schäfermann J, Wieters F, Widera D, Sudhoff H, Kaltschmidt B, Kaltschmidt C. 1,8-Cineole potentiates IRF3-mediated antiviral response in human stem cells and in an ex vivo model of rhinosinusitis. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016 Aug 1;130(15):1339-52. doi: 10.1042/CS20160218. Epub 2016 Apr 25. PMID: 27129189.


Brochot A, Guilbot A, Haddioui L, Roques C. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of three essential oil blends. Microbiologyopen. 2017;6(4):e00459. doi:10.1002/mbo3.459

Silveira D, Prieto-Garcia JM, Boylan F, et al. COVID-19: Is There Evidence for the Use of Herbal Medicines as Adjuvant Symptomatic Therapy?. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:581840. Published 2020 Sep 23. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.581840Review Front Pharmacol. 2020 Sep 23;11:581840. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.581840. eCollection 2020.

Boozari M, Hosseinzadeh H. Natural products for COVID-19 prevention and treatment regarding to previous coronavirus infections and novel studies. Phytotherapy Research : PTR. 2020 Sep. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6873.  

 Jalali, A, Dabaghian, F, Akbrialiabad, H, Foroughinia, F, Zarshenas, MM. A pharmacologybased comprehensive review on medicinal plants and phytoactive constituents possibly effective in the management of COVID19. Phytotherapy Research. 2020; 1– 14. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6936Abstract

Khalil A, Tazeddinova D. The upshot of Polyphenolic compounds on immunity amid COVID-19 pandemic and other emerging communicable diseases: An appraisal. Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2020 Dec;10(6):411-429. doi: 10.1007/s13659-020-00271-z. Epub 2020 Oct 15. PMID: 33057955; PMCID: PMC7558243.


Asif M, Saleem M, Saadullah M, Yaseen HS, Al Zarzour R. COVID-19 and therapy with essential oils having antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. Inflammopharmacology. 2020;28(5):1153-1161. doi:10.1007/s10787-020-00744-0

Mouna Moutia, Norddine Habti, Abdallah Badou, "In Vitro and In Vivo Immunomodulator Activities of Allium sativum L.", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2018, Article ID 4984659, 10 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4984659


Articles:

For information purposes only! 

In vivo studies for the potential antiviral properties of this essential oil:

PubMed:

Li Y, Lai Y, Wang Y, Liu N, Zhang F, Xu P. 1, 8-Cineol Protect Against Influenza-Virus-Induced Pneumonia in Mice.  Inflammation. 2016 Aug;39(4):1582-93. doi: 10.1007/s10753-016-0394-3. PMID: 27351430

Abstract

1,8-Cineol is a major monoterpene principally from eucalyptus essential oils and has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and inhibitory of nuclear factor (NF)-kB effect. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 1,8-cineol on mice infected with influenza A virus. We found that 1,8-cineol protects against influenza viral infection in mice. Moreover, 1,8-cineol efficiently decreased the level of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and MCP-1 in nasal lavage fluids and the level of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in lung tissues of mice infected with influenza virus. The results also showed that 1,8-cineol reduced the expression of NF-kB p65, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in lung tissues. Thus, 1,8-cineol appears to be able to augment protection against IFV infection in mice via attenuation of pulmonary inflammatory responses.


Müller J, Greiner JF, Zeuner M, Brotzmann V, Schäfermann J, Wieters F, Widera D, Sudhoff H, Kaltschmidt B, Kaltschmidt C. 1,8-Cineole potentiates IRF3-mediated antiviral response in human stem cells and in an ex vivo model of rhinosinusitis. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016 Aug 1;130(15):1339-52. doi: 10.1042/CS20160218. Epub 2016 Apr 25. PMID: 27129189.

Abstract

The common cold is one of the most frequent human inflammatory diseases caused by viruses and can facilitate bacterial superinfections, resulting in sinusitis or pneumonia. The active ingredient of the drug Soledum, 1,8-cineole, is commonly applied for treating inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. However, the potential for 1,8-cineole to treat primary viral infections of the respiratory tract remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that 1,8-cineole potentiates poly(I:C)-induced activity of the antiviral transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), while simultaneously reducing proinflammatory nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity in human cell lines, inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs) and in ex vivo cultivated human nasal mucosa. Co-treatment of cell lines with poly(I:C) and 1,8-cineole resulted in significantly increased IRF3 reporter gene activity compared with poly(I:C) alone, whereas NF-κB activity was reduced. Accordingly, 1,8-cineole- and poly(I:C) treatment led to increased nuclear translocation of IRF3 in ITSCs and a human ex vivo model of rhinosinusitis compared with the poly(I:C) treatment approach. Nuclear translocation of IRF3 was significantly increased in ITSCs and slice cultures treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 1,8-cineole compared with the LPS-treated cells mimicking bacterial infection. Our findings strongly suggest that 1,8-cineole potentiates the antiviral activity of IRF3 in addition to its inhibitory effect on proinflammatory NF-κB signalling, and may thus broaden its field of application.

For information purposes only! Some recently published studies for the potential benefit of the use of certain essential oils as “supportive therapy” to improve general patient well-being.


Brochot A, Guilbot A, Haddioui L, Roques C. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of three essential oil blends. Microbiologyopen. 2017;6(4):e00459. doi:10.1002/mbo3.459

Abstract

New agents that are effective against common pathogens are needed particularly for those resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Essential oils (EOs) are known for their antimicrobial activity. Using the broth microdilution method, we showed that (1) two unique blends of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs (AB1 and AB2; cinnamon EOs from two different suppliers) were active against the fourteen Grampositive and negative bacteria strains tested, including some antibioticresistant strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.01% to 3% v/v with minimal bactericidal concentrations from <0.01% to 6.00% v/v; (2) a blend of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Syzygium aromaticum, Origanum vulgare EOs was antifungal to the six Candida strains tested, with MICs ranging from 0.01% to 0.05% v/v with minimal fungicidal concentrations from 0.02% to 0.05% v/v. Blend AB1 was also effective against H1N1 and HSV1 viruses. With this dual activity, against H1N1 and against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae notably, AB1 may be interesting to treat influenza and postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia infections. These blends could be very useful in clinical practice to combat common infections including those caused by microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial drugs.


Silveira D, Prieto-Garcia JM, Boylan F, et al. COVID-19: Is There Evidence for the Use of Herbal Medicines as Adjuvant Symptomatic Therapy?. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:581840. Published 2020 Sep 23. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.581840Review Front Pharmacol. 2020 Sep 23;11:581840. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.581840. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Background: Current recommendations for the self-management of SARS-Cov-2 disease (COVID-19) include self-isolation, rest, hydration, and the use of NSAID in case of high fever only. It is expected that many patients will add other symptomatic/adjuvant treatments, such as herbal medicines.

Aims: To provide a benefits/risks assessment of selected herbal medicines traditionally indicated for "respiratory diseases" within the current frame of the COVID-19 pandemic as an adjuvant treatment.

Method: The plant selection was primarily based on species listed by the WHO and EMA, but some other herbal remedies were considered due to their widespread use in respiratory conditions. Preclinical and clinical data on their efficacy and safety were collected from authoritative sources. The target population were adults with early and mild flu symptoms without underlying conditions. These were evaluated according to a modified PrOACT-URL method with paracetamol, ibuprofen, and codeine as reference drugs. The benefits/risks balance of the treatments was classified as positive, promising, negative, and unknown.

Results: A total of 39 herbal medicines were identified as very likely to appeal to the COVID-19 patient. According to our method, the benefits/risks assessment of the herbal medicines was found to be positive in 5 cases (Althaea officinalis, Commiphora molmol, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hedera helix, and Sambucus nigra), promising in 12 cases (Allium sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea purpurea, Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, Justicia pectoralis, Magnolia officinalis, Mikania glomerata, Pelargonium sidoides, Pimpinella anisum, Salix sp, Zingiber officinale), and unknown for the rest. On the same grounds, only ibuprofen resulted promising, but we could not find compelling evidence to endorse the use of paracetamol and/or codeine.

Conclusions: Our work suggests that several herbal medicines have safety margins superior to those of reference drugs and enough levels of evidence to start a clinical discussion about their potential use as adjuvants in the treatment of early/mild common flu in otherwise healthy adults within the context of COVID-19. While these herbal medicines will not cure or prevent the flu, they may both improve general patient well-being and offer them an opportunity to personalize the therapeutic approaches.


Boozari M, Hosseinzadeh H. Natural products for COVID-19 prevention and treatment regarding to previous coronavirus infections and novel studies. Phytotherapy Research : PTR. 2020 Sep. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6873.  

Abstract

Recently, the novel life-threatening coronavirus infection (COVID-19) was reported at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China, and spread throughout the world in little time. The effective antiviral activities of natural products have been proved in different studies. In this review, regarding the effective herbal treatments on other coronavirus infections, promising natural products for COVID-19 treatment are suggested. An extensive search in Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, ISI, and Scopus was done with search words include coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS, MERS, natural product, herb, plant, and extract. The consumption of herbal medicine such as Allium sativum, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Echinacea spp. Hypericum perforatum, and Glycyrrhiza glabra, Scutellaria baicalensis can improve the immune response. It seems that different types of terpenoids have promising effects in viral replication inhibition and could be introduced for future studies. Additionally, some alkaloid structures such as homoharringtonine, lycorine, and emetine have strong anti-coronavirus effects. Natural products can inhibit different coronavirus targets such as S protein (emodin, baicalin) and viral enzymes replication such as 3CLpro (Iguesterin), PLpro (Cryptotanshinone), helicase (Silvestrol), and RdRp (Sotetsuflavone). Based on previous studies, natural products can be introduced as preventive and therapeutic agents in the fight against coronavirus.

 

Jalali, A, Dabaghian, F, Akbrialiabad, H, Foroughinia, F, Zarshenas, MM. A pharmacologybased comprehensive review on medicinal plants and phytoactive constituents possibly effective in the management of COVID19. Phytotherapy Research. 2020; 1– 14. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6936Abstract


Arisen in China, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-II) is a novel coronavirus that has been expanding fast worldwide. Till now, no definite remedial drug or vaccine has been identified for COVID-19 treatment. Still, for a majority of infected patients, supportive therapy is the cornerstone of the management plan. To the importance of managing the COVID-19 pandemic, this article proposed to collecting capable medicinal plants and bioactive components in both treat and supportive therapy of this novel viral infection. Clinical points in the pathogenesis, symptoms, and complications of COVID-19 were considered. The effective plants and bioactives that may play a role in supportive therapy/management of COVID-19 were searched, collected through the "Scopus" database and listed in three sections. Numerous medicinal plants such as Citrus Spp., Camellia sinensis, and Glycyrrhiza glabra can interference with COVID-19 pathogenesis via inhibition of virus replication and entry to its host cells. Also, some anti-inflammatory herbal medicine such as Andrographis paniculata, Citrus spp., and Cuminum cyminum can relieve fever and cough in COVID-19 patients. Medicinal plants such as G. glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Allium sativum, Althea officinalis, and Panax ginseng may modulate the immune system and possess prevention and supportive therapy. However, more clinical data are required to confirm these hypotheses.


Khalil A, Tazeddinova D. The upshot of Polyphenolic compounds on immunity amid COVID-19 pandemic and other emerging communicable diseases: An appraisal. Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2020 Dec;10(6):411-429. doi: 10.1007/s13659-020-00271-z. Epub 2020 Oct 15. PMID: 33057955; PMCID: PMC7558243.

Abstract

Polyphenols are a large family of more than 10,000 naturally occurring compounds, which exert countless pharmacological, biological and physiological benefits for human health including several chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. Their role in traditional medicine, such as the use of a wide range of remedial herbs (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, basil), has been well and long known for treating common respiratory problems and cold infections. This review reports on the most highlighted polyphenolic compounds present in up to date literature and their specific antiviral perceptive properties that might enhance the body immunity facing COVID-19, and other viral infectious diseases. In fact, several studies and clinical trials increasingly proved the role of polyphenols in controlling numerous human pathogens including SARS and MERS, which are quite similar to COVID-19 through the enhancement of host immune response against viral infections by different biological mechanisms. Thus, polyphenols ought to be considered as a potential and valuable source for designing new drugs that could be used effectively in the combat against COVID-19 and other rigorous diseases.


Asif M, Saleem M, Saadullah M, Yaseen HS, Al Zarzour R. COVID-19 and therapy with essential oils having antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. Inflammopharmacology. 2020;28(5):1153-1161. doi:10.1007/s10787-020-00744-0

Abstract

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global health threat. Unfortunately, there are very limited approved drugs available with established efficacy against the SARs-CoV-2 virus and its inflammatory complications. Vaccine development is actively being researched, but it may take over a year to become available to general public. Certain medications, for example, dexamethasone, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiviral (remdesivir), and IL-6 receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), are used in various combinations as off-label medications to treat COVID-19. Essential oils (EOs) have long been known to have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, and antiviral properties and are being proposed to have activity against SARC-CoV-2 virus. Owing to their lipophilic nature, EOs are advocated to penetrate viral membranes easily leading to membrane disruption. Moreover, EOs contain multiple active phytochemicals that can act synergistically on multiple stages of viral replication and also induce positive effects on host respiratory system including bronchodilation and mucus lysis. At present, only computer-aided docking and few in vitro studies are available which show anti-SARC-CoV-2 activities of EOs. In this review, role of EOs in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 is discussed. A discussion on possible side effects associated with EOs as well as anti-corona virus claims made by EOs manufacturers are also highlighted. Based on the current knowledge a chemo-herbal (EOs) combination of the drugs could be a more feasible and effective approach to combat this viral pandemic.


Quotations from the article: 

Eucalyptus oil: “Taken together, data from both preclinical and clinical trials point towards the promising therapeutic potential that resides in eucalyptus oil and its active constituent, i.e. eucalyptol in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.”

Garlic oil:” …on the basis of these docking and in vitro studies, it is proposed that garlic essential oils and their isolated constituents, especially DAS, have potential to prevent the entry of virus into host cells as well as to activate molecular antioxidant pathways that decrease the secretions of culprit pro-inflammatory cytokines.”

Carvacrol (the active compound in oregano oil): “Results of the study showed that treatment with carvacrol reduced enlargement of alveoli, macrophages recruitment, and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The lung inflammation and emphysema were significantly less in the carvacrol-treated mice as compared with the disease control group. Moreover, carvacrol has also been reported to have antiviral activities against HSV-1, acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), and human rotavirus (RV) (Kamalabadi et al. 2018; Pilau et al. 2011).”


Mouna Moutia, Norddine Habti, Abdallah Badou, "In Vitro and In Vivo Immunomodulator Activities of Allium sativum L.", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2018, Article ID 4984659, 10 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4984659


Abstract

Allium Sativum L. (garlic), which is a species of the onion family, Alliaceae, is one of the most used plants in traditional medicine worldwide. More than 200 chemicals with diverse properties have been found in garlic extracts. Several garlic compounds were suggested to be efficient in improving various pathologies including certain types of cancer. This paper is an overview of data about garlic biological activities in vitro and/or in vivo on immune cells, on the development of certain inflammatory diseases, and on different types of carcinomas and sarcomas. Garlic and its compounds were found to have notable antioxidant properties. Garlic therapeutic potential has also been studied in several inflammatory diseases such as allergic-airway inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, arthritic rheumatism, and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, garlic was found to be able to maintain the immune system homeostasis and to exhibit beneficial effects on immune cells especially through regulation of proliferation and cytokine gene expression. Finally, we will show how major garlic components such as sulfur compounds and polyphenols might be responsible for the garlic biological activities revealed in different situations. If identified, specific compounds present in garlic could potentially be used in therapy.


Orrù B, Szekeres-Bartho J, Bizzarri M, Spiga AM, Unfer V. Inhibitory effects of Vitamin D on inflammation and IL-6 release. A further support for COVID-19 management? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020 Aug;24(15):8187-8193. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202008_22507. PMID: 32767348.

Abstract

The ongoing worldwide pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), raised the urgency to address knowledge gaps and to establish evidence for improving management and control of this viral infection. Throughout a keen analysis of the World Health Organization (WHO) most updated data, a gender-specific difference in the occurrence of infection was determined, which seems to correlate with patient's vitamin D status. Therefore, our purpose is to provide insights into the nutritional importance of vitamin D for its immunomodulatory effect, in order to help counteracting the COVID-19 pandemic. Novel interesting findings suggest that vitamin D, by inducing progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF), might regulate the immune response and also modulate cytokine IL-6, which appears to be increased in COVID-19 infections. Therefore, in addition to the standard recommendations to prevent the infection, supplementation of vitamin D might be considered an approach to help counteracting this global epidemic.


Vitamin D and COVID-19: evidence and recommendations for supplementation. George Griffin, Martin Hewison, Julian Hopkin, Rose Kenny, Richard Quinton, Jonathan Rhodes, Sreedhar Subramanian and David Thickett. Published:01 December 2020https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201912



Abstract

Vitamin D is a hormone that acts on many genes expressed by immune cells. Evidence linking vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 severity is circumstantial but considerable—links with ethnicity, obesity, institutionalization; latitude and ultraviolet exposure; increased lung damage in experimental models; associations with COVID-19 severity in hospitalized patients. Vitamin D deficiency is common but readily preventable by supplementation that is very safe and cheap. A target blood level of at least 50 nmol l1, as indicated by the US National Academy of Medicine and by the European Food Safety Authority, is supported by evidence. This would require supplementation with 800 IU/day (not 400 IU/day as currently recommended in UK) to bring most people up to target. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of vitamin D in the community are unlikely to complete until spring 2021—although we note the positive results from Spain of a randomized trial of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3 or calcifediol) in hospitalized patients. We urge UK and other governments to recommend vitamin D supplementation at 800–1000 IU/day for all, making it clear that this is to help optimize immune health and not solely for bone and muscle health. This should be mandated for prescription in care homes, prisons and other institutions where people are likely to have been indoors for much of the summer. Adults likely to be deficient should consider taking a higher dose, e.g. 4000 IU/day for the first four weeks before reducing to 800 IU–1000 IU/day. People admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 should have their vitamin D status checked and/or supplemented and consideration should be given to testing high-dose calcifediol in the RECOVERY trial. We feel this should be pursued with great urgency. Vitamin D levels in the UK will be falling from October onwards as we head into winter. There seems nothing to lose and potentially much to gain.



Linda L. Benskin A Basic Review of the Preliminary Evidence That COVID-19 Risk and Severity Is Increased in Vitamin D Deficiency.  Front. Public Health, 10 September 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00513


As the world's attention has been riveted upon the growing COVID-19 pandemic, many researchers have written brief reports supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency is related to the incidence and severity of COVID-19. The clear common thread among the top risk groups—vitamin D deficiency—may be being overlooked because of previous overstated claims of vitamin D benefits. However, the need to decrease COVID-19 fatalities among high-risk populations is urgent. Early researchers reported three striking patterns. Firstly, the innate immune system is impaired by vitamin D deficiency, which would predispose sufferers to viral infections such as COVID-19. Vitamin D deficiency also increases the activity of the X-chromosome-linked “Renin-Angiotensin” System, making vitamin D deficient individuals (especially men) more susceptible to COVID-19's deadly “cytokine storm” (dramatic immune system overreaction). Secondly, the groups who are at highest risk for severe COVID-19 match those who are at highest risk for severe vitamin D deficiency. This includes the elderly, men, ethnic groups whose skin is naturally rich in melanin (if living outside the tropics), those who avoid sun exposure for cultural and health reasons, those who live in institutions, the obese, and/or those who suffer with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes. And thirdly, the pattern of geographical spread of COVID-19 reflects higher population vitamin D deficiency. Both within the USA and throughout the world, COVID-19 fatality rates parallel vitamin D deficiency rates. A literature search was performed on PubMed, Google Scholar, and RSMLDS, with targeted Google searches providing additional sources. Although randomized controlled trial results may be available eventually, the correlational and causal study evidence supporting a link between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 risks is already so strong that it supports action. The 141 author groups writing primarily about biological plausibility detailed how vitamin D deficiency can explain every risk factor and every complication of COVID-19, but agreed that other factors are undoubtedly at work. COVID-19 was compared with dengue fever, for which oral vitamin D supplements of 4,000 IU for 10 days were significantly more effective than 1,000 IU in reducing virus replication and controlling the “cytokine storm” (dramatic immune system over-reaction) responsible for fatalities. Among the 47 original research studies summarized here, chart reviews found that serum vitamin D levels predicted COVID-19 mortality rates (16 studies) and linearly predicted COVID-19 illness severity (8 studies). Two causal modeling studies and several analyses of variance strongly supported the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency is a causal, rather than a bystander, factor in COVID-19 outcomes. Three of the four studies whose findings opposed the hypothesis relied upon disproven assumptions. The literature review also found that prophylactically correcting possible vitamin D deficiency during the COVID-19 pandemic is extremely safe. Widely recommending 2,000 IU of vitamin D daily for all populations with limited ability to manufacture vitamin D from the sun has virtually no potential for harm and is reasonably likely to save many lives.